نوشته شده در موضوع عطر و ادکلن در 26 آوریل 2018

Perfume (UK: /ˈpɜːrfjuːm/ US: /pərˈfjuːm/; French: parfum) is a rebate of savoury essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives and solvents, used to give a tellurian body, animals, food, objects, and living-spaces an acceptable scent.[1] It is customarily in potion form and used to give a appreciative smell to a person’s body. Ancient texts and archaeological excavations uncover a use of perfumes in some of a beginning tellurian civilizations. Modern perfumery began in a late 19th century with a blurb singularity of aroma compounds such as vanillin or coumarin, that authorised for a mixed of perfumes with smells before unattainable customarily from healthy aromatics alone.


The word perfume derives from a Latin perfumare, clarification “to fume through”. Perfumery, as a art of origination perfumes, began in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt, and was serve polished by a Romans and Persians.

The world’s first-recorded chemist is deliberate a lady named Tapputi, a redolence builder mentioned in a cuneiform inscription from a 2nd millennium BC in Mesopotamia.[2] She clever flowers, oil, and calamus with other aromatics, afterwards filtered and put them behind in a still several times.[3]

In India, redolence and perfumery existed in a Indus civilization (3300 BC – 1300 BC). One of a beginning distillations of Ittar was mentioned in a Hindu Ayurvedic content Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita.[4]

In 2003,[5] archaeologists unclosed what are believed[by whom?] to be a world’s oldest flourishing perfumes in Pyrgos, Cyprus. The perfumes date behind some-more than 4,000 years. They were detected in an ancient perfumery, a 300-square-meter (3,230 sq ft) factory[5] housing during slightest 60 stills, consistent bowls, funnels, and redolence bottles. In ancient times people used spices and spices, such as almond, coriander, myrtle, conifer resin, and bergamot, as good as flowers.[6]

In a 9th century a Arab chemist Al-Kindi (Alkindus) wrote a Book of a Chemistry of Perfume and Distillations, that contained some-more than a hundred recipes for savoury oils, salves, savoury waters, and substitutes or imitations of dear drugs. The book also described 107 methods and recipes for perfume-making and perfume-making equipment, such as a alembic (which still bears a Arabic name.[7][8] [from Greek ἄμβιξ, “cup”, “beaker”][9][10] described by Synesius in a 4th century[11]).

The Persian chemist Ibn Sina (also famous as Avicenna) introduced a routine of extracting oils from flowers by means of distillation, a procession many ordinarily used today. He initial experimented with a rose. Until his discovery, potion perfumes consisted of mixtures of oil and dejected spices or petals, that finished a clever blend. Rose H2O was some-more delicate, and immediately became popular. Both a tender rebate and a resolution record significantly shabby western perfumery and systematic developments, utterly chemistry.

The art of perfumery was famous in western Europe from 1221, holding into comment a monks’ recipes of Santa Maria delle Vigne or Santa Maria Novella of Florence, Italy.[citation needed] In a east, a Hungarians assembled in 1370 a redolence finished of scented oils blended in an ethanol resolution – best famous as Hungary Water – during a insistence of Queen Elizabeth of Hungary. The art of perfumery prospered in Renaissance Italy, and in a 16th century a personal perfumer to Catherine de’ Medici (1519–1589), Rene a Florentine (Renato il fiorentino), took Italian refinements to France. His laboratory was connected with her apartments by a tip passageway, so that no formulae could be stolen en route. Thanks to Rene, France fast became one of a European centers of redolence and cosmetics manufacture. Cultivation of flowers for their redolence essence, that had begun in a 14th century, grew into a vital attention in a south of France.

Between a 16th and 17th centuries, perfumes were used radically by a abounding to facade physique odors ensuing from sparse bathing. Partly due to this patronage, a redolence attention developed. In 1693, Italian coiffeur Giovanni Paolo Feminis total a redolence H2O called Aqua Admirabilis,[12] currently best famous as eau de cologne; his nephew Johann Maria Farina (Giovanni Maria Farina) took over a business in 1732.[13][need selection to verify]

By a 18th century a Grasse segment of France, Sicily, and Calabria (in Italy) were flourishing savoury plants to furnish a flourishing redolence attention with tender materials. Even today, Italy and France sojourn a core of European redolence pattern and trade.

Dilution classes[edit]

Perfume forms simulate a thoroughness of savoury compounds in a solvent, that in excellent smell is typically ethanol or a brew of H2O and ethanol. Various sources differ intensely in a definitions of redolence types. The power and longevity of a redolence is formed on a concentration, power and longevity of a savoury compounds, or redolence oils, used. As a commission of savoury compounds increases, so does a power and longevity of a scent. Specific terms are used to news a fragrance’s estimate thoroughness by a percent of redolence oil in a volume of a final product. The many widespread terms are:

  • parfum or extrait, in English famous as redolence extract, pristine perfume, or simply perfume: 15–40% savoury compounds (IFRA: typically ~20%);
  • esprit de parfum (ESdP): 15–30% savoury compounds, a occasionally used strength thoroughness in between EdP and perfume;
  • eau de parfum (EdP) or parfum de toilette (PdT): 10–20% savoury compounds (typically ~15%); infrequently called “eau de perfume” or “millésime”; parfum de toilette is a rebate common term, many renouned in a 1980s, that is generally equivalent to eau de parfum;
  • eau de toilette (EdT): 5–15% savoury compounds (typically ~10%);
  • eau de Cologne (EdC), mostly simply called cologne: 3–8% savoury compounds (typically ~5%); see subsequent for some-more information on a treacherous inlet of a tenure “cologne”;
  • in serve to these widely seen concentrations, companies have marketed a accumulation of savoury products underneath a name of “splashes,” “mists,” “veils” and other tighten terms. Generally these products enclose 3% or rebate savoury compounds.

There is many problem over a tenure “cologne,” that has 3 meanings. The initial and oldest clarification refers to a family of fresh, citrus-based fragrances clever regulating extracts from citrus, floral, and woody ingredients. Supposedly these were initial grown in a early 18th century in Cologne, Germany, hence a name. This form of “classical cologne” describes unisex compositions “which are fundamentally citrus blends and do not have a redolence parent.”[14] Examples consolidate Mäurer Wirtz’s 4711 (created in 1799), and Guerlain’s Eau de redolence Impériale (1853).

In a 20th century, a tenure took on a second meaning. Fragrance companies began to offer lighter, rebate strong interpretations of their existent perfumes, origination their products accessible to a wider operation of customers. Guerlain, for example, offering an Eau de redolence chronicle of a flagship redolence Shalimar. In contrariety to exemplary colognes, this form of complicated cologne is a lighter, diluted, rebate strong interpretation of a some-more strong product, typically a pristine parfum. The cologne chronicle is mostly a lightest thoroughness from a line of smell products.[14]

Finally, a tenure “cologne” has entered a English denunciation as a generic, overarching tenure to imply a smell ragged by a man, regardless of a concentration. The tangible product ragged by a masculine competence technically be an eau de toilette, nonetheless he competence still contend that he “wears cologne.” A matching problem surrounds a tenure “perfume,” that can be used a ubiquitous clarity to impute to fragrances marketed to women, possibly or not a smell is indeed an extrait.

Classical colognes initial seemed in Europe in a 17th century. The initial smell labeled a “parfum” mislay with a high thoroughness of savoury compounds was Guerlain’s Jicky in 1889. Eau de Toilette seemed alongside parfum around a spin of a century. The EdP thoroughness and vernacular is a many recent. Parfum de toilette and EdP began to seem in a 1970s and gained recognition in a 1980s.

Imprecise terminology[edit]

The far-reaching operation in a percentages of savoury compounds that competence be benefaction in any thoroughness means that a vernacular of extrait, EdP, EdT, and EdC is utterly imprecise. Although an EdP will mostly be some-more strong than an EdT and in spin an EdC, this is not always a case. Different perfumeries or redolence houses allot opposite amounts of oils to any of their perfumes. Therefore, nonetheless a oil thoroughness of a redolence in EdP dilution will indispensably be aloft than a same redolence in EdT from within a company’s same range, a tangible amounts change among redolence houses. An EdT from one residence competence have a aloft thoroughness of savoury compounds than an EdP from another.

Furthermore, some fragrances with a same product name nonetheless carrying a opposite concentration competence not customarily differ in their dilutions, nonetheless indeed use opposite redolence oil mixtures altogether. For instance, in sequence to make a EdT chronicle of a smell brighter and fresher than a EdP, a EdT oil competence be “tweaked” to enclose somewhat some-more tip records or fewer bottom notes. Chanel No. 5 is a good example: a parfum, EdP, EdT, and now-discontinued EdC concentrations are in fact opposite compositions (the parfum dates to 1921, given a EdP was not grown until a 1980s). In some cases, difference such as extrême, intense, or concentrée that competence prove a aloft savoury thoroughness are indeed totally opposite fragrances, associated customarily given of a matching redolence accord. An instance of this is Chanel’s Pour Monsieur and Pour Monsieur Concentrée.

As a sequence of thumb, women’s fragrances tend to have aloft levels of savoury compounds than men’s fragrances. Fragrances marketed to organisation are typically sole as EdT or EdC, frequency as EdP or redolence extracts. Women’s fragrances used to be common in all levels of concentration, nonetheless currently are generally seen in parfum, EdP and EdT concentrations.

Solvent types[edit]

Perfume oils are mostly diluted with a solvent, nonetheless this is not always a case, and a prerequisite is disputed. By distant a many common well-off for redolence is oil dilution is an ethanol solution, typically a rebate of ethanol and H2O or a accurate spirit. Perfume oil can also be diluted by means of neutral-smelling oils such as fractionated coconut oil, or potion waxes such as jojoba oil.

Applying fragrances[edit]

The compulsory focus of pristine redolence (parfum extrait) in Western cultures is during beat points, such as behind a ears, a nape of a neck, and a bulb of wrists, elbows and knees, so that a beat indicate will comfortable a redolence and recover smell continuously. According to perfumer Sophia Grojsman behind a knees is a ideal indicate to request redolence in sequence that a smell competence rise.[16] The complicated redolence attention encourages a use of layering smell so that it is diminished in opposite intensities depending on a time of a day. Lightly scented products such as bath oil, showering gel, and physique unguent are endorsed for a morning; eau de toilette is suggested for a afternoon; and redolence unsentimental to a beat points for evening.[17][self-published source] redolence smell is diminished rapidly, durability around 2 hours. Eau de toilette lasts from 2 to 4 hours, while redolence competence final adult to 6 hours.[18]

A accumulation of factors can change how smell interacts with a wearer’s possess physiology and impact a notice of a fragrance. Diet is one factor, as eating pointy and greasy dishes can boost a power of a fragrance.[19] The use of drugs can also impact a clarity of a fragrance.[19] The relations dryness of a wearer’s skin is important, given dry skin will not reason smell as prolonged as skin with some-more oil.[18]

Describing a perfume[edit]

The accurate formulae of blurb perfumes are kept secret. Even if they were widely published, they would be dominated by such formidable rebate and odorants that they would be of tiny use in providing a beam to a ubiquitous consumer in outline of a experience of a scent. Nonetheless, connoisseurs of redolence can spin intensely sublime during identifying components and origins of scents in a same demeanour as booze experts.[20]

The many unsentimental approach to start describing a redolence is according to a elements of a fragrance notes of a smell or a “family” it belongs to, all of that impact a altogether clarity of a redolence from initial focus to a final slow spirit of scent.[21][22]

The route of smell left behind by a chairman wearing redolence is called a sillage, after a French word for “wake”, as in a route left by a vessel in water.

Fragrance notes[edit]

Perfume is described in a low-pitched embellishment as carrying 3 sets of notes, origination a agreeable smell accord. The records exhibit over time, with a evident clarity of a tip note heading to a deeper center notes, and a bottom records gradually appearing as a final stage. These records are total delicately with believe of a evaporation routine of a perfume.

  • Top notes: Also called a head notes. The scents that are viewed immediately on focus of a perfume. Top records consolidate of small, light molecules that evaporate quickly. They form a person’s initial clarity of a redolence and so are really critical in a offered of a perfume. Examples of tip records consolidate mint, lavender and coriander.
  • Middle notes: Also referred to as heart notes. The smell of a redolence that emerges customarily before to a abolition of a tip note. The center note compounds form a “heart” or categorical physique of a redolence and act to facade a mostly upsetting initial clarity of bottom notes, that spin some-more appreciative with time. Examples of center records consolidate seawater, sandalwood and jasmine.
  • Base notes: The smell of a redolence that appears tighten to a depart of a center notes. The bottom and center records together are a categorical thesis of a perfume. Base records move abyss and rebate to a perfume. Compounds of this problem of scents are typically abounding and “deep” and are customarily not viewed until 30 mins after application. Examples of bottom records consolidate tobacco, amber and musk.

The scents in a tip and center records are shabby by a bottom notes; conversely, a scents of a bottom records will be altered by a forms of smell materials used as center notes. Manufacturers who tell redolence records typically do so with a smell components presented as a smell pyramid, regulating talented and epitome terms for a components listed.

Olfactive families[edit]

Grouping perfumes can never be a totally pattern or final process. Many fragrances enclose aspects of opposite families. Even a redolence designated as “single flower”, however subtle, will have undertones of other aromatics. “True” unitary scents can frequency be found in perfumes as it requires a redolence to exist customarily as a unaccompanied savoury material.

Classification by olfactive family is a starting indicate for a outline of a perfume, nonetheless it can't by itself imply a specific evil of that perfume.


The normal sequence that emerged around 1900 comprised a following categories:

  • Single Floral: Fragrances that are dominated by a smell from one sole flower; in French called a soliflore. (e.g. Serge Lutens’ Sa Majeste La Rose, that is dominated by rose.)
  • Floral Bouquet: Is a mixed of smell of several flowers in a redolence compound. Examples consolidate Quelques Fleurs by Houbigant and Joy by Jean Patou.
  • Amber or “Oriental”: A vast smell problem featuring a honeyed somewhat animalic scents of ambergris or labdanum, mostly total with vanilla, tonka bean, flowers and woods. Can be extended by camphorous oils and smell resins, that move to mind Victorian epoch imagery of a Middle East and Far East. Traditional examples consolidate Guerlain’s Shalimar, Yves Saint Laurent’s Opium and Chanel’s Coco Mademoiselle.[23]
  • Woody: Fragrances that are dominated by woody scents, typically of agarwood, sandalwood, cedarwood, and vetiver. Patchouli, with a camphoraceous smell, is ordinarily found in these perfumes. A normal instance here would be Myrurgia’s Maderas De Oriente or Chanel Bois des Îles. A complicated instance would be Balenciaga Rumba.
  • Leather: A family of fragrances that facilities a scents of honey, tobacco, timber and timber tars in a center or bottom records and a smell that alludes to leather. Traditional examples consolidate Robert Piguet’s Bandit and Balmain’s Jolie Madame.
  • Chypre (IPA: [ʃipʁ]): Meaning Cyprus in French, this includes fragrances built on a matching settle consisting of bergamot, oakmoss, and labdanum. This family of fragrances is named after a eponymous 1917 redolence by François Coty, and one of a many famous working examples is Guerlain’s Mitsouko.
  • Fougère (IPA: [fu.ʒɛʁ]): Meaning fern in French, built on a bottom of lavender, coumarin and oakmoss. Houbigant’s Fougère Royale pioneered a use of this base. Many men’s fragrances go to this family of fragrances, that is characterized by a pointy herbaceous and woody scent. Some obvious complicated fougères are Fabergé Brut and Guy Laroche Drakkar Noir.


Since 1945, due to good advances in a record of redolence origination (i.e., devalue pattern and synthesis) as good as a healthy growth of styles and tastes, new categories have emerged to news complicated scents:

  • Bright Floral: blending a normal Single Floral Floral Bouquet categories. A good instance would be Estée Lauder’s Beautiful.
  • Green: a lighter and some-more complicated interpretation of a Chypre type, with conspicuous cut grass, dejected immature bottom and cucumber-like scents. Examples consolidate Estée Lauder’s Aliage, Sisley’s Eau de Campagne, and Calvin Klein’s Eternity.
  • Aquatic, Oceanic, or Ozonic: a newest problem in redolence history, initial appearing in 1988 Davidoff Cool Water (1988), Christian Dior’s Dune (1991), and many others. A purify smell suggestive of a ocean, heading to many of a complicated androgynous perfumes. Generally contains calone, a fake smell detected in 1966, or other some-more new synthetics. Also used to accent floral, oriental, and woody fragrances.
  • Citrus: An aged smell family that until recently consisted generally of “freshening” eau de colognes, due to a low persistence of citrus scents. Development of newer smell compounds has authorised for a origination of radically citrus fragrances. A good instance here would be Faberge Brut.
  • Fruity: featuring a aromas of fruits other than citrus, such as peach, cassis (black currant), mango, passion fruit, and others. A complicated instance here would be Ginestet Botrytis.
  • Gourmand (French: [ɡuʁmɑ̃]): scents with “edible” or “dessert”-like qualities. These mostly enclose records like vanilla, tonka bean and coumarin, as good as fake components designed to resemble food flavors. A honeyed instance is Thierry Mugler’s Angel.

Fragrance wheel[edit]

The Fragrance circle is a comparatively new sequence routine that is widely used in sell and in a smell industry. The routine was total in 1983 by Michael Edwards, a consultant in a redolence industry, who designed his possess intrigue of smell classification. The new intrigue was total in sequence to facilitate smell sequence and fixing scheme, as good as to uncover a relations between any of a sole classes.[24]

The 5 customary families consolidate of Floral, Oriental, Woody, Aromatic Fougère, and Fresh, with a initial 4 families borrowing from a classical vernacular and a final consisting of newer splendid and purify smelling citrus and oceanic fragrances that have arrived in a past era due to improvements in smell technology. Each of a families are in spin divided into subgroups and organised around a wheel. In this sequence scheme, Chanel No.5, that is traditionally personal as an aldehydic floral, would be located underneath a Soft Floral sub-group, and amber scents would be placed within a Oriental group. As a class, chypre perfumes are some-more formidable to place given they would be located underneath tools of a Oriental and Woody families. For instance, Guerlain’s Mitsouko is placed underneath Mossy Woods, nonetheless Hermès Rouge, a chypre with some-more floral character, would be placed underneath Floral Oriental.

Aromatics sources[edit]

Plant sources[edit]

Plants have prolonged been used in perfumery as a source of essential oils and aroma compounds. These aromatics are customarily delegate metabolites assembled by plants as insurance opposite herbivores, infections, as good as to attract pollinators. Plants are by distant a largest source of savoury compounds used in perfumery. The sources of these compounds competence be subsequent from several tools of a plant. A plant can offer some-more than one source of aromatics, for instance a aerial portions and seeds of coriander have remarkably opposite odors from any other. Orange leaves, blossoms, and fruit liking are a sole sources of petitgrain, neroli, and orange oils.

  • Bark: Commonly used barks consolidate cinnamon and cascarilla. The savoury oil in sassafras bottom bellow is also used possibly directly or purified for a categorical constituent, safrole, that is used in a singularity of other savoury compounds.
  • Flowers and blossoms: Undoubtedly a largest and many common source of redolence aromatics. Includes a flowers of several class of rose and jasmine, as good as osmanthus, plumeria, mimosa, tuberose, narcissus, scented geranium, cassie, ambrette as good as a blossoms of citrus and ylang-ylang trees. Although not traditionally suspicion of as a flower, a unopened flower buds of a clove are also ordinarily used. Most orchid flowers are not commercially used to furnish essential oils or absolutes, solely in a box of vanilla, an orchid, that contingency be pollinated initial and finished into seed pods before use in perfumery.
  • Fruits: Fresh fruits such as apples, strawberries, cherries frequency furnish a approaching odors when extracted; if such smell records are found in a perfume, they are some-more expected to be of fake origin. Notable exceptions consolidate blackcurrant leaf, litsea cubeba, vanilla, and juniper berry. The many ordinarily used fruits furnish their aromatics from a rind; they consolidate citrus such as oranges, lemons, and limes. Although grapefruit peel is still used for aromatics, some-more and some-more commercially used grapefruit aromatics are artificially synthesized given a healthy savoury contains sulfur and a plunge product is utterly upsetting in smell.
  • Leaves and twigs: Commonly used for perfumery are lavender leaf, patchouli, sage, violets, rosemary, and citrus leaves. Sometimes leaves are valued for a “green” smell they move to perfumes, examples of this consolidate grain and tomato leaf.
  • Resins: Valued given antiquity, resins have been widely used in smell and perfumery. Highly savoury and bleach resins and resin-containing perfumes have been used by many cultures as medicines for a vast accumulation of ailments. Commonly used resins in perfumery consolidate labdanum, frankincense/olibanum, myrrh, balsam of Peru, benzoin. Pine and fir resins are a utterly valued source of terpenes used in a organic singularity of many other fake or naturally occurring savoury compounds. Some of what is called amber and copal in perfumery currently is a resinous secretion of hoary conifers.
  • Roots, rhizomes and bulbs: Commonly used tellurian portions in perfumery consolidate iris rhizomes, vetiver roots, several rhizomes of a ginger family.
  • Seeds: Commonly used seeds consolidate tonka bean, carrot seed, coriander, caraway, cocoa, nutmeg, mace, cardamom, and anise.
  • Woods: Highly critical in providing a bottom records to a perfume, timber oils and distillates are indispensable in perfumery. Commonly used woods consolidate sandalwood, rosewood, agarwood, birch, cedar, juniper, and pine. These are used in a form of macerations or dry-distilled (rectified) forms.
  • Rom terpenes. Orchid scents

Animal sources[edit]

  • Ambergris: Lumps of oxidized greasy compounds, whose precursors were secreted and diminished by a spermatazoa whale. Ambergris should not be confused with yellow amber, that is used in jewelry. Because a harvesting of ambergris involves no mistreat to a animal source, it stays one of a few animalic fragrancing agents around that tiny debate now exists.
  • Castoreum: Obtained from a malodorous sacs of a North American beaver.
  • Civet: Also called civet musk, this is achieved from a malodorous sacs of a civets, animals in a family Viverridae, associated to a mongoose. World Animal Protection investigated African civets held for this purpose.[25]
  • Hyraceum: Commonly famous as “Africa stone”, is a petrified excrement of a stone hyrax.[26]
  • Honeycomb: From a honeycomb of a honeybee. Both beeswax and sugar can be well-off extracted to furnish an absolute. Beeswax is extracted with ethanol and a ethanol evaporated to furnish beeswax absolute.
  • Musk: Originally subsequent from a gland (sac or pod) located between a genitals and a umbilicus of a Himalayan masculine redolence deer Moschus moschiferus, it has now generally been transposed by a use of fake musks infrequently famous as “white musk”.

Other healthy sources[edit]

  • Lichens: Commonly used lichens consolidate oakmoss and treemoss thalli.
  • “Seaweed”: Distillates are infrequently used as essential oil in perfumes. An instance of a ordinarily used seaweed is Fucus vesiculosus, that is ordinarily referred to as bladder wrack. Natural seaweed fragrances are frequency used due to their aloft cost and reduce intensity than synthetics.

Synthetic sources[edit]

Many complicated perfumes enclose synthesized odorants. Synthetics can furnish fragrances that are not found in nature. For instance, Calone, a devalue of fake origin, imparts a uninformed ozonous lead sea smell that is widely used in contemporary perfumes. Synthetic aromatics are mostly used as an swap source of compounds that are not simply achieved from healthy sources. For example, linalool and coumarin are both naturally occurring compounds that can be low synthesized from terpenes. Orchid scents (typically salicylates) are customarily not achieved directly from a plant itself nonetheless are instead synthetically total to compare a savoury compounds found in several orchids.

One of a many ordinarily used classes of fake aromatics by distant are a white musks. These materials are found in all forms of blurb perfumes as a neutral credentials to a center notes. These musks are combined in vast quantities to washing detergents in sequence to give cleared garments a durability “clean” scent.

The infancy of a world’s fake aromatics are total by comparatively few companies. They include:

  • International Flavors and Fragrances (IFF)
  • Givaudan
  • Firmenich
  • Takasago
  • Symrise

Each of these companies patents several processes for a prolongation of savoury synthetics annually.


Natural and synthetics are used for their opposite incense characteristics in perfumery


Natural scents will change from any retailer formed on when and where they are harvested, how they are processed, and a descent routine itself. This means that a certain flower grown in Morocco and in France will smell different, even if a same routine is used to grow, harvest, and mislay a scent. As such, any perfumer will cite flowers grown in one nation over another, or one descent routine to a next. However, due to a healthy scent’s churned composition, it is easy for unethical suppliers to brew a tangible tender materials by changing a source (adding Indian jasmine into Grasse jasmine) or a contents (adding linalool to rosewood) to boost their distinction margin.
Much some-more unchanging than healthy aromatics. However, differences in organic singularity competence outcome in notation differences in thoroughness of impurities. If these impurities have low smell (detection) thresholds, a differences in a smell of a fake savoury will be significant.

Contains many opposite organic compounds, any adding a opposite note to a altogether scent. Certain naturally subsequent substances have a prolonged story of use, nonetheless this can't always be used as an indicator of possibly they are protected or not. Possible allergenic or carcinogenic compounds.
Depending on purity, consists radically of one chemical compound. Sometimes chiral mixtures of isomers, such as in a box of Iso E Super.[27] Due to a roughly pristine mixed of one chemical compound, a same molecules found diluted in inlet will have a opposite smell and outcome on a body, if used undiluted.

Scent uniqueness
Reminiscent of a imagining material, nonetheless descent competence constraint a opposite “layer” of a scent, depending on a how a descent routine denatures a pungent compounds.
Similar to healthy scents nonetheless opposite during a same time. Some synthetics try to impersonate healthy notes, while others try a whole spectrum of scent. Novel smell compounds not found in inlet will mostly be singular in their scent.

Scent complexity
Deep and formidable smell notes. Soft, with pointed smell nuances. Highly valued for ideal composition.
Pure and conspicuous smell notes. Often unchanging in nature, nonetheless suggestive of other healthy scents.

Dependent on descent method. More expensive, nonetheless not always, as prices are dynamic by a labor and problem of scrupulously extracting any section of a healthy materials, as good as a quality. Typically a attribute between, longevity of a perfume, cost and a thoroughness of essential oils follows a graph below:

Dependent on singularity method. Generally cheaper, nonetheless not necessarily. Synthetic aromatics are not indispensably cheaper than naturals, with some synthetics being some-more dear than many healthy rebate due to several factors such as a prolonged singularity routes, low accessibility of predecessor chemicals, and low altogether yield. However, due to their low incense threshold, they should be diluted when origination a perfume.

Obtaining healthy odorants[edit]

Before perfumes can be composed, a odorants used in several redolence compositions contingency initial be obtained. Synthetic odorants are assembled by organic singularity and purified. Odorants from healthy sources need a use of several methods to mislay a aromatics from a tender materials. The regulation of a descent are possibly essential oils, absolutes, concretes, or butters, depending on a volume of waxes in a extracted product.[29]

All these techniques will, to a certain extent, crush a incense of a savoury compounds achieved from a tender materials. This is due to a use of heat, oppressive solvents, or by bearing to oxygen in a descent routine that will denature a savoury compounds, that possibly change their incense clarity or renders them odorless.

  • Maceration/Solvent extraction: The many used and economically critical technique for extracting aromatics in a complicated redolence industry. Raw materials are submerged in a well-off that can disintegrate a preferred savoury compounds. Maceration lasts anywhere from hours to months. Fragrant compounds for woody and sinewy plant materials are mostly achieved in this demeanour as are all aromatics from animal sources. The technique can also be used to mislay odorants that are too flighty for distillation or simply denatured by heat. Commonly used solvents for maceration/solvent extraction consolidate ethane, hexane, and dimethyl ether. The product of this routine is called a “concrete.”
    • Supercritical potion extraction: A comparatively new technique for extracting savoury compounds from a tender material, that mostly employs Supercritical CO2. Due to a low feverishness of routine and a comparatively nonreactive well-off used in a extraction, a savoury compounds subsequent mostly closely resemble a strange incense of a tender material.
    • Ethanol extraction: A form of well-off descent used to mislay savoury compounds directly from dry tender materials, as good as a polluted greasy compounds materials ensuing from well-off descent or enfleurage. Ethanol descent from uninformed plant materials enclose vast quantities of water, that will also be extracted into a ethanol.
  • Distillation: A common technique for receiving savoury compounds from plants, such as orange blossoms and roses. The tender element is exhilarated and a savoury compounds

    are re-collected by precipitation of a clever vapor.

    • Steam distillation: Steam from hot H2O is upheld by a tender material, that drives out their flighty savoury compounds. The condensate from resolution are staid in a Florentine flask. This allows for a easy subdivision of a savoury oils from a water. The H2O collected from a condensate, that retains some of a savoury compounds and oils from a tender element is called hydrosol and infrequently sold. This is many ordinarily used for uninformed plant materials such as flowers, leaves, and stems.
    • Dry/destructive distillation: The tender materials are directly exhilarated in a still though a conduit well-off such as water. Fragrant compounds that are diminished from a tender element by a high feverishness mostly bear anhydrous pyrolysis, that regulation in a arrangement of opposite savoury compounds, and so opposite savoury notes. This routine is used to obtain savoury compounds from hoary amber and savoury woods where an conscious “burned” or “toasted” incense is desired.
    • Fractionation: Through a use of a fractionation column, opposite fractions clever from a element can be selectively expelled to cgange a smell of a final product. Although a product is some-more expensive, this is infrequently achieved to mislay upsetting or unattractive scents of a element and affords a perfumer some-more control over their mixed process.
  • Expression: Raw element is squeezed or dense and a essential oils are collected. Of all tender materials, customarily a savoury oils from a peels of fruits in a citrus family are extracted in this demeanour given a oil is benefaction in vast adequate quantities as to make this descent routine economically feasible.
  • Enfleurage: Absorption of aroma materials into plain fat or polish and afterwards descent of malodorous oils with ethyl alcohol. Extraction by enfleurage was ordinarily used when resolution was not probable given some savoury compounds denature by high heat. This technique is not ordinarily used in a complicated attention due to restricted costs and a existence of some-more fit and effective descent methods.[21]

Fragrant extracts[edit]

Although savoury extracts are famous to a ubiquitous open as a ubiquitous tenure “essential oils”, a some-more specific denunciation is used in a smell attention to news a source, purity, and technique used to obtain a sole savoury extract. Of these extracts, customarily absolutes, essential oils, and tinctures are directly used to delineate perfumes.

  • Absolute: Fragrant materials that are purified from a pommade or concrete by shower them in ethanol. By regulating a somewhat hydrophilic devalue such as ethanol, many of a savoury compounds from a slick source materials can be extracted though dissolving any of a fragrantless slick molecules. Absolutes are customarily found in a form of an greasy liquid.
  • Concrete: Fragrant materials that have been extracted from tender materials by solvent extraction regulating flighty hydrocarbons. Concretes customarily enclose a vast volume of polish due to a palliate in that a solvents disintegrate several violent compounds. As such concretes are customarily serve purified by resolution or ethanol formed well-off extraction. Concretes are typically possibly slick or resinous solids or thick greasy liquids.
  • Essential oil: Fragrant materials that have been extracted from a source element directly by distillation or expression and achieved in a form of an greasy liquid. Oils extracted by countenance are infrequently called expression oils.
  • Pomade: A savoury mass of plain fat total from a enfleurage process, in that malodorous compounds in tender materials are adsorbed into animal fats. Pommades are found in a form of an greasy and gummy solid.
  • Tincture: Fragrant materials assembled by directly shower and infusing tender materials in ethanol. Tinctures are typically skinny liquids.[21]

Products from opposite descent methods are famous underneath opposite names even nonetheless their starting materials are a same. For instance, orange blossoms from Citrus aurantium that have undergone well-off descent produces “orange freshness absolute” nonetheless that that have been steam clever is famous as “neroli oil”.

Composing perfumes[edit]

Perfume compositions are an critical partial of many industries trimming from a oppulance products sectors, food services industries, to manufacturers of several domicile chemicals. The purpose of regulating redolence or smell compositions in these industries is to impact business by their clarity of smell and tempt them into purchasing a redolence or savoury product. As such there is poignant seductiveness in producing a redolence plan that people will find aesthetically pleasing.

The perfumer[edit]

The pursuit of member perfumes that will be sole is left adult to an consultant on redolence mixed or famous in a smell attention as a perfumer. They are also infrequently referred to affectionately as a “Nez” (French for nose) due to their excellent clarity of smell and ability in smell composition.

The mixed of a redolence typically starts with a brief by a perfumer’s employer or an outward customer. The business to a perfumer or their employers, are typically conform houses or vast companies of several industries.[30] The perfumer will afterwards go by a routine of consistent mixed redolence mixtures and sell a plan to a customer, mostly with modifications of a mixed of a perfume. The redolence mixed will afterwards be possibly used to raise another product as a functional fragrance (shampoos, make-up, detergents, automobile interiors, etc.), or marketed and sole directly to a open as a fine fragrance.[20]


Although there is no singular “correct” technique for a plan of a perfume, there are ubiquitous discipline as to how a redolence can be assembled from a concept. Although many rebate do not minister to a smell of a perfume, many perfumes consolidate colorants and anti-oxidants to urge a marketability and shelf life of a perfume, respectively.

Basic framework[edit]

Perfume oils customarily enclose tens to hundreds of rebate and these are typically orderly in a redolence for a specific purpose they will play. These rebate can be roughly grouped into 4 groups:

  • Primary scents (Heart): Can consolidate of one or a few categorical rebate for a certain concept, such as “rose”. Alternatively, mixed rebate can be used together to emanate an “abstract” primary smell that does not bear a similarity to a healthy ingredient. For instance, jasmine and rose scents are ordinarily blends for epitome floral fragrances. Cola flavourant is a good instance of an epitome primary scent.
  • Modifiers: These rebate change a primary smell to give a redolence a certain preferred character: for instance, fruit esters competence be enclosed in a floral primary to emanate a fruity floral; calone and citrus scents can be combined to emanate a “fresher” floral. The cherry smell in cherry cola can be deliberate a modifier.
  • Blenders: A vast organisation of rebate that well-spoken out a transitions of a redolence between opposite “layers” or bases. These themselves can be used as a vital member of a primary scent. Common consistent rebate consolidate linalool and hydroxycitronellal.
  • Fixatives: Used to support a primary smell by bolstering it. Many resins, timber scents, and amber bases are used as fixatives.

The top, middle, and bottom records of a smell competence have apart primary scents and ancillary ingredients. The perfume’s smell oils are afterwards blended with ethyl ethanol and water, aged in tanks for several weeks and filtered by estimate apparatus to, respectively, concede a redolence rebate in a rebate to stabilise and to mislay any lees and particles before a resolution can be filled into a redolence bottles.[31]

Fragrance bases[edit]

Instead of building a redolence from “ground up”, many complicated perfumes and colognes are finished regulating fragrance bases or simply bases. Each bottom is radically modular redolence that is blended from essential oils and savoury chemicals, and formulated with a elementary judgment such as “fresh cut grass” or “juicy green apple”. Many of Guerlain’s Aqua Allegoria line, with their elementary smell concepts, are good examples of what redolence smell bases are like.

The bid used in building bases by smell companies or sole perfumers competence equal that of a marketed perfume, given they are useful in that they are reusable. On tip of a reusability, a advantage in regulating bases for construction are utterly numerous:

  1. Ingredients with “difficult” or “overpowering” scents that are tailored into a blended bottom competence be some-more simply incorporated into a work of perfume
  2. A bottom competence be improved smell approximations of a certain thing than a mislay of a thing itself. For example, a bottom finished to consolidate a smell for “fresh dewy rose” competence be a improved estimation for a smell judgment of a rose after sleet than plain rose oil. Flowers whose scents can't be extracted, such as gardenia or hyacinth, are stoical as bases from information subsequent from headspace technology.
  3. A perfumer can fast serious out a judgment from a brief by blending mixed bases, afterwards benefaction it for feedback. Smoothing out a “edges” of a redolence can be finished after a certain response.

Reverse engineering[edit]

Creating perfumes by retreat engineering with methodical techniques such as Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS) can exhibit a “general” regulation for any sole perfume. The problem of GC/MS investigate arises due to a complexity of a perfume’s ingredients. This is utterly due to a participation of healthy essential oils and other rebate consisting of formidable chemical mixtures. However, “anyone armed with good GC/MS apparatus and gifted in regulating this apparatus can today, within days, find out a good understanding about a plan of any perfume… business and competitors can investigate many perfumes some-more or rebate precisely.”[32]

Antique or badly recorded perfumes undergoing this investigate can also be formidable due to a countless plunge by-products and impurities that competence have resulted from relapse of a malodorous compounds. Ingredients and compounds can customarily be ruled out or identified regulating gas chromatograph (GC) smellers, that concede sole chemical components to be identified both by their earthy properties and their scent. Reverse engineering of best-selling perfumes in a marketplace is a really common use in a smell attention due to a relations morality of handling GC equipment, a vigour to furnish commercial fragrances, and a frequency remunerative inlet of a redolence market.[31]


It is puzzled possibly perfumes validate as suitable copyright theme matter underneath a US Copyright Act. The emanate has not nonetheless been addressed by any US court. A perfume’s smell is not authorised for heading insurance given a smell serves as a organic purpose of a product.[33]

In 2006 a Dutch Supreme Court postulated copyright insurance to Lancôme’s redolence Tresor (Lancôme v. Kecofa). The French Supreme Court has twice taken a position that perfumes miss a creativity to consecrate copyrightable expressions (Bsiri-Barbir v. Haarman Reimer, 2006; Beaute Prestige International v. Senteur Mazal, 2008).[33]

Health and environmental issues[edit]

Perfume ingredients, regardless of healthy or fake origins, competence all means health or environmental problems when used. Although a areas are underneath active research, many stays to be schooled about a effects of smell on tellurian health and a environment.


Immunological; asthma and allergy[edit]

Evidence in peer-reviewed journals shows that some fragrances can means asthmatic reactions in some individuals, generally those with serious or atopic asthma.[34] Many smell rebate can also means headaches, allergic skin reactions[35] or nausea.[36][37][38]

In some cases, an extreme use of perfumes competence means allergic reactions of a skin. For instance, acetophenone, ethyl acetate[citation needed] and acetone[31] while benefaction in many perfumes, are also famous or intensity respiratory allergens. Nevertheless, this competence be misleading, given a mistreat presented by many of these chemicals (either healthy or synthetic) is contingent on environmental conditions and their concentrations in a perfume. For instance, linalool, that is listed as an irritant, causes skin exasperation when it degrades to peroxides, however a use of antioxidants in perfumes or rebate in concentrations can forestall this. As well, a furanocoumarin benefaction in healthy extracts of grapefruit or celery can means serious allergic reactions and boost attraction to ultraviolet radiation.[39]

Some investigate on healthy aromatics have shown that many enclose compounds that means skin irritation.[40] However some studies, such as IFRA’s investigate explain that opoponax is too dangerous to be used in perfumery, still miss systematic consensus.[41] It is also loyal that infrequently transformation alone can means skin irritation.[citation needed]

A series of inhabitant and ubiquitous surveys have identified balsam of Peru, mostly used in perfumes, as being in a “top five” allergens many ordinarily causing patch exam reactions in people referred to dermatology clinics.[42][43][44] A investigate in 2001 found that 3.8% of a ubiquitous race patch tested was allergic to it.[45] Many perfumes enclose components matching to balsam of Peru.[46]

Balsam of Peru is used as a pen for redolence allergy. Its participation in a cosmetic is denoted by a INCI tenure Myroxylon pereirae.[47] Balsam of Peru has been criminialized by a International Fragrance Association given 1982 from use as a smell compound, nonetheless competence be benefaction as an mislay or essence in other products, where imperative labelling is not compulsory for use of 0.4% or less.[46]


There is systematic justification that nitro-musks such as redolence xylene could means cancer in some specific animal tests. These reports were evaluated by a EU Scientific Committee for Consumer Safety (SCCS, before a SCCNFP [48]) and redolence xylene was found to be protected for continued use in cosmetic products.[49] It is in fact partial of a procedures of a Cosmetic Regulation in Europe that materials personal as carcinogens need such a reserve analysis by a authorities to be authorised in cosmetic consumer products.

Although other rebate such as polycyclic fake musks, have been reported to be certain in some in-vitro hormone assays,[50][51] these reports have been reviewed by several authorities. For example, for one of a categorical polycyclic musks Galaxolide (HHCB) these reviews includes those of a EU Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety,[52] a EU’s Priority Substances Review,[53] a EU Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risk,[54] and some-more recently also a US EPA.[55] The outcome of all of these reviews over a past decade or so is that there is no reserve concerns for tellurian health. Reviews with matching certain outcome exists for another categorical polycyclic redolence (AHTN) as good for instance on a protected us in cosmetics by a EU.[56]

Many healthy aromatics, such as oakmoss absolutes,[40][57] basil oil, rose oil and many others enclose allergens or carcinogenic compounds, a reserve of that is possibly governed by regulations (e.g. authorised methyl eugenol levels in a EU Cosmetics Regulation (Entry 102, Annex III of a EU Cosmetics Regulation.[58]) or by several stipulations set by a International Fragrance Association.[59]


Certain chemicals found in redolence are mostly toxic, during slightest for tiny insects if not for humans. For example, a devalue Tricyclodecenyl allyl sky is mostly found in fake perfumes[60][61] and has insect repellent property.



Synthetic musks are appreciative in smell and comparatively inexpensive, as such they are mostly employed in vast quantities to cover a upsetting smell of washing detergents and many personal cleaning products. Due to their large-scale use, several forms of fake musks have been found in tellurian fat and milk,[62] as good as in a sediments and waters of a Great Lakes.[63]

These pollutants competence poise additional health and environmental problems when they enter tellurian and animal diets.

Species endangerment[edit]

The final for savoury materials such as sandalwood, agarwood, and redolence has led to a endangerment of these species, as good as bootleg trafficking and harvesting.

Safety regulation[edit]

The redolence attention in a US is not directly regulated by a FDA, instead a FDA controls a reserve of perfumes by their rebate and requires that they be tested to a border that they are Generally famous as safe (GRAS). Due to a need for insurance of trade secrets, companies frequency give a full inventory of rebate regardless of their effects on health. In Europe, as from 11 Mar 2005, a imperative inventory of a set of 26 famous smell allergens was enforced.[64] The requirement to list these materials is contingent on a dictated use of a final product. The boundary above that a allegens are compulsory to be announced are 0.001% for products dictated to sojourn on a skin, and 0.01% for those dictated to be rinsed off. This has resulted in many aged perfumes like chypres and fougère classes, that need a use of oakmoss extract, being reformulated.

Preserving perfume[edit]

Fragrance compounds in perfumes will reduce or mangle down if improperly stored in a participation of heat, light, oxygen, and unconnected organic materials. Proper refuge of perfumes involves gripping them divided from sources of feverishness and storing them where they will not be unprotected to light. An non-stop bottle will keep a aroma total for several years, as prolonged as it is good stored.[20] However, a participation of oxygen in a conduct space of a bottle and environmental factors will in a prolonged run change a smell of a fragrance.

Perfumes are best recorded when kept in light-tight aluminium bottles or in their strange wrapping when not in use, and refrigerated to comparatively low temperatures: between 3–7 °C (37–45 °F). Although it is formidable to totally mislay oxygen from a headspace of a stored flask of fragrance, opting for mist dispensers instead of rollers and “open” bottles will minimize oxygen exposure. Sprays also have a advantage of isolating smell inside a bottle and preventing it from consistent with dust, skin, and detritus, that would reduce and change a peculiarity of a perfume.

There exist several repository and museums clinging to a refuge of chronological perfumes, namely a Osmothèque, that bonds over 3,000 perfumes from a past dual millennia in their strange formulations. All scents in their collection are recorded in non-actinic potion flasks burning with argon gas, stored in thermally insulated compartments confirmed during 12 °C (53.6 °F) in a vast vault.[65]

Lists of perfumes[edit]

See also[edit]

  • List of essential oils
  • Aromatherapy
  • Do-it-yourself
  • Cologne
  • FiFi Awards – annual smell awards
  • Fragrance companies
  • Fragrance lamp
  • Fragrance Museum
  • Johann Maria Farina gegenüber dem Jülichs-Platz
  • Odor
  • Maker culture
  • Pheromone
  • Pomander
  • Potpourri
  • Sachet (scented bag)
  • Scented water
  • Sex in advertising
  • Toilet water


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Further reading[edit]

  • Burr, Chandler (2004). “The Emperor of Scent: A True Story of Perfume and Obsession” Random House Publishing. ISBN 978-0-375-75981-9
  • Edwards, Michael (1997). “Perfume Legends: French Feminine Fragrances”. Crescent House Publishing. ISBN 0-646-27794-4.
  • Moran, Jan (2000). “Fabulous Fragrances II: A Guide to Prestige Perfumes for Women and Men”. Crescent House Publishing. ISBN 0-9639065-4-2.
  • Turin, Luca (2006). “The Secret of Scent”. Faber Faber. ISBN 0-571-21537-8.
  • Stamelman, Richard: “Perfume – Joy, Obsession, Scandal, Sin”. Rizzoli. ISBN 978-0-8478-2832-6. A informative story of smell from 1750 to a benefaction day.
  • Süskind, Patrick (2006). “Perfume: The Story of a Murderer”. Vintage Publishing (English edition). ISBN 978-0-307-27776-3. A novel of perfume, mania and sequence murder. Also diminished as a film with same name in 2006.

External links[edit]

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عطر ماه تولد مردانه متولدین بهمن ماه پسرانه اورجینال عطر ماه تولد زنانه متولدین بهمن ماه دخترانه اورجینال عطر ماه تولد مردانه متولدین دی ماه پسرانه اورجینال عطر ماه تولد زنانه متولدین دی ماه دخترانه اورجینال

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با فرمولی استثنایی از بزرگترین عطر سازان معروف، عمیق ترین تاثیرات روحی و ..

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عطر ماه تولد مردانه متولدین خرداد ماه پسرانه اورجینال عطر ماه تولد زنانه متولدین خرداد ماه دخترانه اورجینال عطر ماه تولد مردانه متولدین اردیبهشت ماه پسرانه اورجینال عطر ماه تولد زنانه متولدین اردیبهشت ماه دخترانه اورجینال

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12,000 تومان buy Perfume 12,000 تومان buy Perfume 12,000 تومان buy Perfume 12,000 تومان buy Perfume
N1312812545 Perfume N1312812370 Perfume N1312812125 Perfume N1312812078 Perfume
عطر ماه تولد زنانه متولدین آبان ماه دخترانه اورجینال عطر ماه تولد مردانه متولدین مهر ماه پسرانه اورجینال عطر ماه تولد زنانه متولدین شهریور ماه دخترانه اورجینال عطر ماه تولد مردانه متولدین شهریور ماه پسرانه اورجینال

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12,000 تومان buy Perfume 12,000 تومان buy Perfume 12,000 تومان buy Perfume 12,000 تومان buy Perfume
N1312812324 Perfume N1312812585 Perfume N1312811574 Perfume N1312810584 Perfume
عطر ماه تولد زنانه متولدین مهر ماه دخترانه اورجینال عطر ماه تولد مردانه متولدین آبان ماه پسرانه اورجینال عطر ماه تولد مردانه متولدین تیر ماه پسرانه اورجینال عطر ماه تولد زنانه متولدین فروردین ماه دخترانه اورجینال

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با فرمولی استثنایی از بزرگترین عطر سازان معروف، عمیق ترین تاثیرات روحی و ..

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12,000 تومان buy Perfume 12,000 تومان buy Perfume 12,000 تومان buy Perfume 12,000 تومان buy Perfume
N1312811758 Perfume N1462979007 Perfume N1339706638 Perfume N1517403553 Perfume
عطر ماه تولد زنانه متولدین مرداد ماه دخترانه اورجینال رکابی رنگی فیتنس هات شیپر فروش اینترنتی کرم garnier مرطوب کننده روز اصلی با مجوز بهداشت | کرم گارنیرskin naturals light 40 gr پرایمر کرم پودری دبالم

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رکابی رنگی فیتنس هات شیپر

نام:کرم مرطوب کننده روز گارنیر»نام انگلیسی:garnier skin naturals light»میل:40

کرم پودری
بستن منافذ باز پوست
اینفاده بعنوان کرم پودر

12,000 تومان buy Perfume 30,000 تومان buy Perfume 55,000 تومان buy Perfume 50,000 تومان buy Perfume
N1517400721 Perfume N1451810066 Perfume N1406206226 Perfume N1421843995 Perfume
پکیج هدی بیوتی کیف رولی لوازم آرایش Roll N Go پد رفع ترک پا جادویی به همراه کرم مخصوص رفع ترک پا گن لاغری مردانه

ست سه تایی از برند هدی بیوتی

با کیفیت عالی

کیف رولی ، بسیار جادار و کارآمد مناسب خانم ها

پد جادویی ترک و زبری پا دارای مجوز از وزارت بهداشت به شماره 12458/9/ک 29/7/69

با گن لاغری مردانه شما می توانید تناسب اندام خود را کنترل کنید و زیبا تر باشید.

48,000 تومان buy Perfume 14,000 تومان buy Perfume 25,000 تومان buy Perfume 27,000 تومان buy Perfume
N1423043903 Perfume N1421835074 Perfume N1418199667 Perfume N1418191284 Perfume
کیف رولی آرایش گن لاغری مردانه دستگاه طراحی ناخن سالن اکسپرس اورجینال دستگاه مانیکور پدیکور ناخن سالن شیپر اصل salon shaper

کیف رولی آرایش وسیله ایی مفید برای خانم های محترم

گن لاغری مردانه برای تناسب اندام شماآقایان

ست کامل طراحی ناخن salon express اصل بهترین وسیله برای طراحی و زیبایی ناخن

وسیله برای مانیکور ناخن ها بدون نیاز به آرایشگاه

15,000 تومان buy Perfume 27,000 تومان buy Perfume 18,500 تومان buy Perfume 19,000 تومان buy Perfume
 Perfume N1451806632 Perfume N1417857776 Perfume N1463475950 Perfume
سنگ پا برقی شول گوش پاک کن برقی wax vac موکن سمباده ای سان دپیل اسموت اوی smooth away اسپری دافع حشرات نانو با گارانتی شرکتی

سنگ پا برقی شول ، از بین برنده ترک و خشکیدگی پوست ، با غلطک چرخان بسیار با کیفیت

گوش پاک کن برقی ، سبک و مکنده خوب ، دارای طراحی زیبا و کارآمد

موبر سمباده ای اسموت اوی بهترین روش دائمی رفع موهای زائد بدن

اسپری ضد حشرات نانو دارای شماره پروانه 118/21694 و شماره شناسه نانو 102/3/1139

24,000 تومان buy Perfume 13,000 تومان buy Perfume 9,500 تومان buy Perfume 16,000 تومان buy Perfume


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